Foundational Ontology Comparison: Ontological Commitments

Term and meaning DOLCE BFO GFO SUMO
Ontological Commitments
Descriptive vs. Realist (Descriptive: represent the entities underlying natural language and human common-sense; Realist: represent the world exactly as is) Descriptive Realist Descriptive and Realist Descriptive
Universals vs. Particulars (Universals can have instances, particulars do not) Particulars Universals Universals and Particulars Universals and Particulars
Multiplicative vs. Reductionist (Multiplicative: different objects can be co-located at the same time; Reductionist: only one object may be located at the same region at one time) Multiplicative Reductionist Unclear Multiplicative
Endurantism vs. Perdurantism (Endurantism: an object is wholly present at all times; Perdurantism: an object has temporal parts) Endurantism and Perdurantism Endurantism and Perdurantism Endurantism and Perdurantism Endurantism and Perdurantism
Actualism vs. Possibilism (everything that exists in the ontology is real; Objects are allowed independent of their actual existence Possibilism Actualism Unclear Unclear
Eternalist stance (the past, present and future all exist) Eternalist Eternalist Eternalist Eternalist
Concrete & Abstract entities (Concrete: entities that exist in space and time; Abstract: entities that exist neither in space nor time) Concrete and Abstract Concrete Concrete and Abstract Concrete and Abstract
Mereology (theory of parts) GEM Own mereology Own mereology Own mereology
Temporal aspects Provided Not provided Provided Provided
Granularity (different levels of detail contained in an on- tology) High level Sensitive Unclear Unclear
Properties and values ('attribute'; e.g., the colour of an apple) Included Some support Included Included
Model for space and time (Consists of time and space regions and boundaries) Not included Included Not included Not included
One-layered vs. Three-layered architecture (a basic level only; an abstract top level, abstract core level and basic level) One-layered One-layered Three-layered One-layered
Situations and situoids (Situation: an aggregate of facts that can be comprehended as a whole and satis es certain conditions of unity; Situoid: is a part of the world that is a comprehensible whole and can exist independently) Not included Not included Included Not included